Responsibility and Blameworthiness for Implicit Bias.
Research on implicit bias has convinced us that we may be in possession of deep attitudes that affect our behaviour in disturbing ways. Philosophers have mostly agreed that although we should do what we can to change such attitudes, we cannot be directly responsible for them. I dispute that claim in this paper. I show that the most plausible account of responsibility allows that we are directly responsible for implicit biases, even when we are completely ignorant of them. I show that this does not translate directly to an account of blameworthiness, and argue that a more nuanced account of blameworthiness helps to alleviate the worries that have led philosophers to deny that we are responsible for our biases.